Białka, tłuszcze i węglowodany

Wrzesień 24th, 2011

Często się słyszy, że produkty żywnościowe zawierają mało węglowodanów, są bogate w białko lub wolne od tłuszczu. Warto wrócić do postaw żywienia i przyjrzeć się tym trzem makroskładnikom, które są źródłem prawie wszystkich kalorii w pożywieniu.

 
 
 

Żywność zawiera zazwyczaj w różnych proporcjach białka, tłuszcze i węglowodany. Jednak istnieją produkty, które zawierają wyłącznie jeden z tych trzech składników pokarmowych np. olej (zawiera tylko tłuszcz) czy cukier (zawiera węglowodany).

Białka

Zbudowane są z 20 aminokwasów, z czego można wyróżnić 8, których organizm nie potrafi sam wytworzyć (aminokwasy niezbędne), w związku z czym muszą one zostać dostarczone wraz z pożywieniem. Białka pełnowartościowe (źródło produkty zwierzęce jak: mleko i produkty mleczne, mięso, ryby, jaja) zawierają wszystkie aminokwasy w odpowiednich ilości i proporcjach, natomiast białka niepełnowartościowe (roślinne) pozbawione są co najmniej jednego niezbędnego aminokwasu.

Białka są źródłem energii. 1 gram białka dostarcza 4 kcal. Oto podstawowe ich funkcje:

  • podstawowy składnik budulcowy wszystkich tkanek i związków biologicznie czynnych (enzymy, hormony)
  • naprawa tkanek (gojenie ran)
  • regulacja procesów przemiany materii przez działanie enzymów
  • udział w procesach obronnych organizmu (produkcja przeciwciał)
  • funkcja transportowa
  • udział w procesach widzenia

Tłuszcze

Pomimo tego, że cieszą się  nie najlepszą reputacją to są one niezbędnym składnikiem diety. Tłuszcze są źródłem energii – 1 g ich gram dostarcza 9 kcal.  Jednak nie wszystkie tłuszcze oddziałują w ten sam sposób na nasz organizm. Tłuszcze w najprostszy sposób można podzielić na: nasycone i nienasycone.

  • Tłuszcze nasycone są to tłuszcze pochodzenia zwierzęcego i powodują one między innymi wzrost cholesterolu we krwi oraz przyspieszają rozwój zmian miażdżycowych w tętnicach.
  • Tłuszcze nienasycone można dodatkowo podzielić na jednonienasycone i wielonienasycone.
  • Tłuszcze jednonienasycone (oliwa z oliwek) mogą pełnić ważną rolę w profilaktyce miażdżycy, gdyż przyczyniają się do obniżenia cholesterolu całkowitego i jego frakcji LDL.
  • Tłuszcze wielonienasycone (olej słonecznikowy, sojowy, ryby) – są to najbardziej wartościowe tłuszcze. Ich spożywanie powoduje obniżenie zawartości cholesterolu całkowitego, jego frakcji LDL oraz trójglicerydów, a także zapobiega powstawaniu zakrzepów naczyniowych.
  • Tłuszcze trans – są to tłuszcze powstałe w wyniku utwardzenia ciekłych olejów roślinnych (produkcja margaryn twardych) lub w wyniku podgrzewania oleju do bardzo wysokiej temperatury (frytki, chipsy). Oprócz tego, że wykazują negatywny wpływ na gospodarkę lipidową (bardziej negatywny niż nasycone kwasy tłuszczowe) to mogą powodować nowotwory.

Ogólna zasada w przypadku tłuszczów: unikać produktów zawierających tłuszcze nasycone (zwierzęce) i tłuszcze w konfiguracji trans, a spożywać  produkty zawierające tłuszcze nienasycone (produkty roślinne, oleje, ryby).

Podstawowe funkcje tłuszczu w organizmie to:

  • stanowią skoncentrowane źródło energii dla tkanek i narządów
  • funkcja zapasowa (gromadzenie energii)
  • ułatwiają odczuwanie smaku i przełykanie pokarmu
  • stanowią budulec błon komórkowych i białej masy mózgu
  • jako tłuszcz podskórny chronią przed nadmierną utratą ciepła

Węglowodany

Są głównym źródłem energii – 1 g węglowodanów dostarcza 4 kcal. Oprócz tego pełnia szereg innych funkcji:

  • glukoza jest niezbędnym składnikiem odżywczym dla mózgu i w przypadku jej niedoboru (zmniejszenie ilości węglowodanów w diecie) następuje przemiana białka w glukozę
  • nadają cechy organoleptyczne
  • stanowią ochronę dla białka
  • są źródłem błonnika pokarmowego, który pełni bardzo wiele funkcji, z których najważniejsze to regulacja metabolizmu i detoksykacja organizmu

Zalecane spożycie składników pożywienia przedstawia się następująco:

– białko 10-15% energii
– tłuszcze 15-30% energii
– węglowodany 55-65% energii

Jak obliczyć udział procentowy poszczególnych składników w diecie?

Z danych opublikowanych w Roczniku Statystycznym Rolnictwa 2010 wynika, że przeciętną wartość energetyczna i zawartość składników pokarmowych na 1 osobę w roku 2009 wyglądała następująco:

– wartość energetyczna 2505 kcal
– białko 77 g
– tłuszcze 101 g
– węglowodany 315 g

I teraz jeśli wiadomo, że:

1 g białka dostarcza 4 kcal
1 g tłuszczu dostarcza 9 kcal
1 g węglowodanów dostarcza 4 kcal

1. Obliczamy udział procentowy białka w energii

77 g x 4 kcal = 308 kcal –  ilość energii pochodząca ze źródeł białkowych

Jeżeli 2505 kcal to całkowita kaloryczność diety (100%) to 308 kcal będzie stanowiło: 308 kcal x 100% / 2505 kcal = 12,3% energii

2. Obliczamy udział procentowy tłuszczów w energii

101 g x 9 kcal = 909 kcal – ilość energii pochodząca z tłuszczów

Ponownie obliczamy udział procentowy: 909 kcal x 100% / 2505 kcal = 36,3%

3. Obliczamy udział procentowy węglowodanów w energii

315 g x 4 kcal = 1260 kcal – ilość energii podchodząca z węglowodanów

Ponownie obliczamy udział procentowy: 1260 kcal x 100% / 2505 kcal = 50,3%

Udział podstawowych składników pokarmowych w przeciętnej diecie przedstawia się następująco:

– białko 12,3% energii
– tłuszcze 36,3% energii
– węglowodany 50,3% energii

Jak widać przeciętna dieta zawiera za dużo tłuszczów, których ilość należałoby ograniczyć zwiększając przy tym spożycie węglowodanów złożonych.

Źródło: Gawęcki J., Hryniewiecki L. Żywienie człowieka. Podstawy nauk o żywieniu, PWN,Warszawa 2006.

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43 odpowiedzi ↓

  1. Sylwia pisze:

    OJ jakbym chciala miec ta wiedze w jednym paluszku 🙂 wlasnie zmieniam swoj tryb zycia i moje nawyki zywieniowe:) czytam o bialkach weglowodanach tluszczach i wielu innych rzeczach bo wiadomo dieta cud nie pomoga trzeba zmienic jadlospis na zdrowy i ograniczyc tluszcze nasycone o weglowodany „te zle” :)gratuluje wiedzy:)

  2. Sylwia pisze:

    a moze mi cos podpowiesz co powinnam zmienic w swoim zywieniu na zawsze zebym schudla i utrzymala wage?

  3. Mario pisze:

    Dziękuję za miłe słowa. 🙂 Ciężko coś podpowiedzieć, gdy nie za bardzo wiem jak wygląda Twoje żywienie. Moja szybka porada: jeść 5 małych posiłków dziennie i pić 1,5-2 L wody mineralnej. Gdybym wiedział coś więcej na temat Twojego sposobu żywienia mógłbym powiedzieć więcej.

  4. Michał pisze:

    „Jak widać przeciętna dieta zawiera za dużo tłuszczów, których ilość należałoby ograniczyć zwiększając przy tym spożycie węglowodanów złożonych.”
    Straszne, skąd wogóle taki wniosek? To, że uzyskujemy więcej energi z tłuszczy przekłada się na to, że jemy ich mniej/jesteśmy nimi dłużej nasyceni. To co powinno się przedewszystkim ograniczać i dla zdrowia i zmniejszenia wagi to węglowodany w szczególności ten proste – np cukier.

    • Mario pisze:

      Michał, moje stwierdzenie, że spożywamy za dużo tłuszczów wynika stąd, że norma wynosi 15-30% (optymalnie 25%), a jemy ich 36%. Za to ja nie bardzo rozumiem stwierdzenie, że „więcej energi z tłuszczy przekłada się na to, że jemy ich mniej/jesteśmy nimi dłużej nasyceni.”.
      Druga kwestia to też struktura spożywanych tłuszczów – inną rolę pełnią nasycone a inną nienasyconą – to inny temat.
      Co do ograniczenia węglowodanów – zgadzam się w pełni, że należy ograniczać węglowodany proste. Ale dlaczego ograniczać węglowodany złożone, skoro produkty ich dostarczające są źródłem własnie energii (węglowodany) jak i innych cennych składników. Podobne stanowiska prezentują instytucje żywieniowe, które normę na węglowodany szacują na: 55-65%. Ale na węglowodany proste już nie więcej niż 10%.
      Pozdrawiam.

      • Michał pisze:

        Chodziło mi o to, że nie ma znaczenia to, że z tłuszczy uzyskujemy 9kcal a z węglowodanów 4kcal. Odniosłem wrażenie, że właśnie dla tego zalecałeś mniejsze spożycie tłuszczy.

        Pozostaje pytanie skąd wiadomo, że ta norma jest dobra?
        Fakt, że ktoś zalecił taki podział nie znaczy, że jest on dobry/optymalny. Przykładem jest tu właśnie USA które ma słabe zalecenia(z dobrych rzeczy mówi tylko o ograniczeniu cukru i to nawet nie każdego bo zaleca duże ilości owoców) i widać to po olbrzymiej liczbie otyłych ludzi.
        O ile dobrze pamiętam była to zmiana zalecenia z 40% na 30% energi z tłuszczy.

        Co do składników odżywczych nie potrzebujesz jeść tyle węglowodanów by zjeść to co potrzebujesz, i tak znaczna częścią tego są rzeczy typu makaron, które nie mają nic unikatowego.
        Zresztą dobrze widać to dobrze po tym, że praktycznie wszystkie diety na których ludzie znacząco chudną ograniczają właśnie węglowodany, a nie tłuszcze podając trochę skrajny przykład dieta Dukana.
        Chodzi o to, że nie należy nagle teraz nie jeść węglowodanów, ale takie proporcje w jakich teraz jemy są napewno o niebo lepsze niz zwiększenie węglowodanów na niekorzyść tłuszczy i straszenie ludzi jedzeniem ich.

        • Mario pisze:

          Nie sądzę, aby zalecenia w Stanach Zjednoczonych były słabe. Przeciwnie, uważam, że amerykańskie organizacje mogą stanowić wzór do naśladowania. Olbrzymia ilość otyłych ludzi w USA nie świadczy o tym, że zalecenia są złe. Istnieje długa droga od norm do ich realizacji. Niestety dietetycy mają ograniczone możliwości edukacji pacjentów, kiedy za przeciwnika mają ogromny przemysł spożywczy.

        • Jimbo pisze:

          I suspect Carntbioe’s seeing the Cronin Bump today.BTW, according to Mr. Right, the Mayan calendar didn’t account for leap days and years, so the world actually ended last July. Who knew?Like? 3

      • Daga pisze:

        przy ćwiczeniu 5 razy w tygodniu no i średnio ruchawym ponad to trybie życia czy to nie mało białka?? szukam shcematu chciałabym się bardziej wdrożyć w tematykę 🙂 dzięki!! 🙂

    • Lyndee pisze:

      Articles like this really grease the shafts of kndeowlge.

    • Jonay pisze:

      Algrhit alright alright that’s exactly what I needed!

  5. Michał pisze:

    Polecam obejrzeć film Fat head, w którym jest to objaśnione. USA jest fajnym przykładem gdzie zmieniono zalecany stosunek między tłuszczami i węglowodanami i na korzyść tych drugich i gwałtownie rośnie tam ilość ludzi otyłych.

    • Velvet pisze:

      Absolutely beautiful!!! Myles and Lill, I know you are so thrilled for Ross and Dessie. PRAISE THE LOINR!!CODGRATULAT!ONS, ROSS AND DESSIE!!!(Jennifer, gr8 job on PICS, too—loved seeing you at Lindsey Gandy’s wedding, too. FUN!!!)

  6. Iwona pisze:

    Dzięki bardzo mi to pomogło w zadaniu domowym 😀

    • Sergey pisze:

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        Seilyusro, the ironic current bad music posts are getting really old. Either write about good shit (new or old) or mix up the bad bands. This slam shit is getting way played out.

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      • Dalton pisze:

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    • Adelie pisze:

      Great common sense here. Wish I’d thgohut of that.

  7. Ktoś pisze:

    Fajny blog,ja mam cukrzycę i zgadzam się z Mario. 🙂

    • Johana pisze:

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    • Deandra pisze:

      Normally I’m against killing but this article sltrghaeued my ignorance.

  8. Agnieshka pisze:

    No właśnie ja na nowo odkrywam tłuszcze, trochę późno, bo mi już po Dukanie 75 proc. włosów z głowy wypadło i paznokci nie mogę odhodować. Słyszałam, że najbardziej wartościowe są tłuszcze roślinne, ale najlepiej sięgać po te mieszane, typu lniano-rzepakowy golden drop, bo one mają zalety różnych olejów połączone w jedno. A przy okazji, czy to prawda, że oliwa z oliwek jest mniej wartościowa jeśli chodzi o substancje prozdrowotne niż zwykły olej rzepakowy? Bo słyszałam różne opinie na ten temat…

    • Tilly pisze:

      I am afraid I have missed that post on minsialmitic shoes, where can I find that, thanks for help! And Anton, good to hear from you and that you seem to be in good spirits.

  9. Karola pisze:

    normy zostały znowelizowane na procentowy udział składników odżywczych.
    Tłuszcz to teraz 20-35%
    węglowodany 50 – 70 %
    Białko bez zmian 10 – 15%.

  10. dieta na mase pisze:

    Genialnie napisane cieszę się, że udało mi się trafić na tak dobrze opracowany serwis.
    dieta na mase http://dietanamase.eu/

  11. Katherine pisze:

    : pardon Docteur … Non seulement j’ai compris de travers mais je me suis enfoncé dans mon erreur avec arrogance.@Myst : ok, c’est bon, j’ai compris. Je n’avais pas saisi que la première bulle de Roselyne était une &lss©o;&nbap;rÃuponse&nbqp;» à la phrase figurant au-dessus (« La superbactérie résistante aux antibiotiques arrive en Europe ») qui pour moi était une sorte de titre auquel il n’était pas envisageable qu’elle réponde …

  12. modernweddinginvitation pisze:

    Six weeks old! "Where am I? What is this place?!"

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